. Q - A theoretical lost source for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which contains Jesus' sayings in Greek. Though scholars speculate on its existence, no fragment has ever been found.


The Four Evangelists [detail of Mark as the Lion]. The Book of Kells. Trinity College, Dublin. ca. 800 AD. Insular script. Gospel of John. The Book of Kells. (Greek kallos/beauty + graphé/writing) an ornamental form of creating letters which involves decorative strokes.

The Book of Kells features a plate depicting the four evangelists in their traditionally symbolic form: Matthew [human/angel], Mark [lion], Luke [ox] and John [eagle]. There are several biblical sources for these symbols, including Ezekiel 1:1-14, Ezekiel 10:1-22, Daniel 7:1-8 and Revelation 4:7-8.

Around the throne, and on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind: 4:7 the first living creature like a LION, the second living creature like an OX, the third living creature with a face like a HUMAN face, and the fourth living creature like a flying EAGLE. 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside.
Revelation 4:7-8

Some scholars believe that Mark was viewed like a son by the disciple Peter and that this chapter of the New Testament most closely reflects Peter's view of the Christ: a servant sent by God to accomplish a specific task. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke use the Gospel of Mark and the Q document as their primary sources.